an illustration of NASA's asteroid hunter telescope in space
NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona

NASA is making big leaps in its goal of protecting Earth from cosmic threats. The space agency is currently working on a new telescope, dubbed the “next-generation asteroid hunter,” which promises to be a “game-changer” in identifying hazardous near-Earth objects.

In December, NASA announced in a press release that construction had begun on its Near-Earth Object Surveyor (NEO Surveyor) and outlined its goals for the telescope. The organization will send the device into space, to L1 Lagrange Point — 1 million miles from Earth, between our planet and the sun. Using two infrared heat sensors, NEO Surveyor will be able to identify both dark asteroids and comets and what NASA refers to as “Earth Trojans.”

Dark asteroids are currently harder to detect since they don’t reflect as much light. Likewise, Earth Trojans are cosmic bodies that travel from the direction of the sun. Due to the sun’s glare, it’s difficult for astronomers to identify these possible threats. Fortunately, NEO Surveyor would be able to spot these potential dangers, giving NASA early detection capabilities.

“For the first time in our planet’s history, Earth’s inhabitants are developing methods to protect Earth by deflecting hazardous asteroids,” Amy Mainzer, the mission’s survey director, said in a statement. “But before we can deflect them, we first need to find them. NEO Surveyor will be a game-changer in that effort.”

RELATED: NASA’s James Webb Telescope Delivers Deepest and Sharpest Infrared Image of Space

According to Cosmos Magazine, Earth is pummeled by 17 meteors each day, around 6,100 a year. Most of these pose little risk to humans, falling in uninhabited areas. In 2005, NASA made it its mission to identify 90% of near-Earth objects that are more than 460 feet in size and within 30 million miles of our orbit — objects that pose a significant risk should they impact the planet. 

Last year, the organization demonstrated its first planetary defense test against an asteroid, successfully changing its trajectory. NASA is no longer leaving Earth’s chances up to a game of blindly playing cosmic dodgeball, and NEO Surveyor is the next step in its plans.

So when should we expect the asteroid telescope to take to the stars? According to USA Today, it will be set to launch by June 2028. Back in November, the project passed a key technical and programmatic review milestone. But although construction is underway, it will take some time to complete. 

“The project team, including all of our institutional and industrial collaborators, is already very busy designing and fabricating components that will ultimately become flight hardware,” Tom Hoffman, NEO Surveyor project manager, said in the press release.

It won’t be long before NASA has a better surveillance of what is going on in our cosmic backyard. Cue audible sigh of relief.

Shot of an unrecognisable businesswoman sitting alone and using her computer while working from home
Delmaine Donson / iStock

Many of us spend large portions of our days sitting — whether we’re working, watching television, or participating in a hobby like reading or painting. While it may not come as a shock that staying seated for extended periods isn’t great for your health, a new study out of Columbia University suggests that the detrimental impact may be easily offset with a simple activity. 

Published on January 12 in the journal Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, the research determined that breaking up each half-hour of sitting with a light, five-minute walk significantly reduced systolic blood pressure (the pressure in your arteries when your heart beats) and lowered blood sugar levels throughout the day.

In a news release from Columbia University Irving Medical Center, lead author Keith Diaz, who is the director of the institution’s Exercise Testing Laboratory at the Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health, likened the decrease in blood pressure to results “you would expect from exercising daily for six months.” 

RELATED: One-Minute Bursts of Exercise Three Times a Day Are Linked to a Longer Life, Study Finds

The study was small: Diaz and his team tested 11 individuals. Each was “prescribed” five different exercise “snacks” throughout eight-hour periods of sitting in an ergonomic chair. In addition to testing out one-minute treadmill walks every hour and five-minute walks every half-hour, participants also tried one-minute walks every half-hour, five-minute walks every hour, and no walking at all. 

“If we hadn’t compared multiple options and varied the frequency and duration of the exercise, we would have only been able to provide people with our best guesses of the optimal routine,” Diaz, who is also an associate professor of behavioral medicine at the university, said in the release. The one-minute-per-hour and five-minute-per-half-hour walks came out on top in terms of physical health impact, but all of the walking regimens resulted in decreased fatigue and increased mood. 

“The effects on mood and fatigue are important,” said Diaz. “People tend to repeat behaviors that make them feel good and that are enjoyable.”

RELATED: Doctors in England Can Now Prescribe Walking, Cycling to Improve Mental and Physical Health

And that behavior doesn’t require a ton of effort. Speaking to CNN, the researcher said the walks can be as leisurely as just 1.9 miles an hour and still make a difference, a speed he referred to as much slower than most people typically walk.

Noting that “so many” people live sedentary lives — 25% of Americans are not active at all — he went on to stress that employers should also take note of the detrimental effects of prolonged sitting.

“There are these social norms where if you are up out of your desk, people think you’re not working,” he told the outlet, adding, “Sitting is an occupational hazard and a healthy employee is a more productive employee.”

So if you find yourself feeling down about how much time you spend in a chair or on the couch each day, know that improving your health and mood doesn’t require a complete lifestyle overhaul. For more ideas on how to incorporate simple movement into your daily routine, check out these tips

Cody Powers, Bloomberg Philanthropies

It might seem too easy, but some colorful paint and a little bit of creativity could be all that’s needed to transform roads and make them safer for pedestrians, cyclists, and drivers alike. Cities around the country have begun investing in asphalt art — painting murals on intersections, crosswalks, plazas, and sidewalk extensions. 

The Asphalt Art Initiative was created in 2020 by Bloomberg Philanthropies. Within its first year,  it helped cover “nearly 86,500 square feet of streets with artwork in 16 [U.S.] cities,” according to a news release by the City of East Providence, Rhode Island. It’s since expanded its grant program, and has now supported a total of 64 art projects in U.S. and European cities.

Cody Powers, Bloomberg Philanthropies

In April of 2022, the organization published research demonstrating just how much of an impact the colorful transformations have had. Data showed that implementing asphalt art projects led to a 50% decrease in the rate of crashes involving pedestrians or other vulnerable road users, a 37% decrease in the rate of crashes leading to injuries, and a 17% decrease in the overall crash rate. 

“It forces you to stop and look at your street differently,” Janette Sadik-Khan, New York City’s former transportation commissioner, told NBC News of asphalt art. “Drivers, when they see color and life on the street, they naturally slow down.” 

In an October news release announcing that Asphalt Art Initiative grants had been awarded to 19 European cities, she added: “Projects like these not only connect people, but make streets safer, and we encourage cities everywhere to paint their own transportation masterpieces.”

Eric Waters, Bloomberg Philanthropies
Matt Eich, Bloomberg Philanthropies
Jason Alden, Bloomberg Philanthropies
Volunteers help to paint the design of local artist Candy Carver as part of Bloomberg Philanthropies’ Asphalt Art Initiative at the Club Crossing intersection in Durham, NC
Travis Dove, Bloomberg Philanthropies
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A similar program out of Washington D.C., called Arts in the Right-of-Way and launched by the city’s District Department of Transportation, has also been adding color to crosswalks and curbs since 2019, according to People for Bikes. The program offers a design guide to help residents learn how to paint asphalt safely and without breaking any city ordinances, and provides an “art map” on its website for those who wish to visit the painted locations around town. 

Sean Carroll, Bloomberg Philanthropies

In addition to cultivating community and promoting safety, the colorful streets add an element of beauty to once-gray pavement — and who couldn’t use an extra dose of brightness while taking a walk or drive around town?

LANGZHONG, CHINA - JANUARY 08: Performers parade at Langzhong Ancient City ahead of Chinese New Year, the year of the Tiger, on January 8, 2022 in Langzhong, Nanchong City, Sichuan Province of China.
Wang Yugui/VCG via Getty Images

Fresh off the heels of New Year’s Day in the United States, we’re quickly approaching the Lunar New Year, a holiday that begins with the first new moon of the year. For 2023 — the “Year of the Rabbit” —  the worldwide celebration will kick off on January 22, with families and friends enjoying feasts and participating in traditions and festivities

Each year, Lunar New Year is celebrated by Asian cultures around the globe — including Chinese, Vietnamese, and Korean communities, among others. The holiday is commonly referred to as the Chinese New Year in the West, or the Spring Festival (Chūnjié in Mandarin) in China, Singapore, and other countries with large Chinese populations. According to National Geographic, the festival is considered to embrace overarching themes of reunion and hope.

In contrast to a solitary New Year’s Day celebration based upon the Gregorian calendar (the calendar formally adhered to in the U.S. and the majority of the world), Chinese New Year celebrations last for multiple days — typically about 15 — until the first full moon of the year. In day-to-day life, modern China follows the Gregorian calendar as well, but its holidays still follow the lunar calendar, per Nat Geo.

For those unfamiliar with this special time of the year, here’s a brief overview of what it’s all about.

The Year of the Rabbit

Each year of the Chinese Lunar calendar is represented by one of 12 zodiac animals — the rat, ox, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, goat, monkey, rooster, dog and pig — that repeat rotationally. This year is the Year of the Rabbit. The overall belief is that the year assigned to each animal will embody experiences and qualities similar to that animal.

According to The Japan Times, the rabbit is “historically known as the gentlest and most tender of the 12 animals in the Chinese zodiac.”  

For those hoping that 2023 will provide a more peaceful and restful experience than its predecessor, according to the Chinese zodiac, they are indeed in luck.

Yang Bo/China News Service/VCG via Getty Images

The History of the Chinese New Year

It’s widely believed that the Chinese New Year began at some point during the reign of the Shang Dynasty under Emperor Wu of Han in the 14th century, according to, with rituals conducted to mark the first day of the occasion. According to scholar Yong Chen, China’s agricultural roots at the time made this “the occasion to celebrate the harvest and worship the gods and ask for good harvests in times to come.” 

In 1949, under the Communist Party, the government opted to instead follow the Gregorian calendar and do away with celebrations adhering to the traditional Chinese New Year. In modern times, Chinese leaders displayed greater acceptance of the tradition. Beginning in 1996, the government officially declared a weeklong vacation during the Spring Festival, and it is now a state holiday.


The holiday celebrates “household and heavenly deities,” and ancestors, marked with feasting and other special activities, per Fish is a traditional New Year’s Eve last course, which is considered to bring good luck. Other traditional foods that mark the occasion include rice ball soup, moon-shaped rice cakes, and dumplings. Some celebrants hide a clean new coin inside a dumpling, also for luck. As noted by Nat Geo, the New Year’s eve meal — considered “the year’s most important meal” — is a time for family reunions, and it’s traditionally held in the house of the family’s most senior member.

The color red dominates celebrations due to its affiliation with prosperity; red envelopes, or “hongbao,” filled with cash are typically exchanged.

The last day of the 15-day holiday is the Lantern Festival, during which time houses are adorned in colorful lanterns, gifts are exchanged, and parades, dances, games, and fireworks all bring the festivities to a close. 

In Mandarin, traditional greetings used to wish others a happy New Year include “Xīnnián hǎo,” which means “New Year Goodness” or “Good New Year,” and “Xīnnián kuàilè,” which translates to “Happy New Year,” per

Check out these photos from last year’s Lunar New Year celebration, the Year of the Tiger, and click here to find out which animal corresponds to the year you were born and what it means.

dog training: corgi puppy on a leash from a woman
fotografixx/ iStock

If you’ve insisted your canine companion can tell when you’re upset, even without any external indication of your emotions, you’ve got some science to back it up. Research suggests that dogs can pick up on human stress by using the strongest tool they have: their sense of smell. 

Published in September, a study out of the United Kingdom tested whether four pet dogs — named Treo, Fingal, Soot, and Winnie — could detect stress hormones in sweat and breath samples taken from 36 human participants. In 675 out of 720 trials, the dogs were able to differentiate the “stressed” samples from the baseline samples. 

“This study has definitively proven that people, when they have a stress response, their odor profile changes,” lead author Clara Wilson, a doctoral student at Queen’s University Belfast, told The Guardian, later adding, “It was pretty amazing to see [the dogs] be so confident in telling me ‘nope, these two things definitely smell different.’” 

To collect the stress samples, Wilson and her team had its human participants count backward from 9,000 in units of 17, out loud and in front of researchers (either via a video call or in person). To up the ante, the researchers spoke to participants sternly as they counted, insisting that it was important they perform the test accurately. If an incorrect answer was given, the researcher would interrupt with the word “no.” 

Unsurprisingly, almost 80% of participants reported feeling stressed by the task, and increased blood pressure and heart rate were recorded in 27 of the people who performed it in the lab, according to The Guardian. Samples that reflected an increase of at least two points from a participant’s baseline stress level were provided to the dogs about three hours later. 

Though this study may be one of the most recent examples, it’s far from the first time canines — whose senses of smell are 10,000 to 100,000 times stronger than ours — have used their noses to detect changes in humans’ physical states. 

According to Diabetic Alert Dogs of America, certain canine companions are trained to pick up on the smells released when changes in blood sugar levels occur in their owners. Additionally, a study published online in 2016 showed that dogs were able to detect certain cancers via exhaled breaths, while another from 2019 demonstrated that they could identify the disease by sniffing blood samples. 

The September research may have similarly useful implications. Canines who assist people with PTSD are typically taught to look for visual signs, such as crouching down or self-injurious behaviors, but the new evidence could offer additional cues. “There is definitely a smell component, and that might be valuable in the training of these dogs in addition to all of the visual stuff,” Wilson told The Guardian. 

Just one more reason to appreciate (hu)man’s best friend!

researchers working on the black box extrusion process smile as they hover above the box in low-gravity on a flight test
Steve Boxall, MIT

First we go to the moon, and then we go to Mars — that’s the impetus behind NASA’s ongoing Artemis missions. And as the goal to send more people to live, work, and learn in space seems increasingly in our reach, it may be helped along by an experimental manufacturing process that the space agency calls “black box extrusion.” Scientists hope that the process, which was recently tested aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for the first time, will one day capitalize on the microgravity in space to create parts and structures that are impossible to build on Earth. 

For now, the magic happens inside a microwave-sized metal box, which, along with a number of other experiments, was launched via SpaceX’s 26th commercial resupply mission on November 26. After spending around 45 days aboard the ISS, where it was used to manufacture various small parts, the box is set to return to Earth early Wednesday morning, and scientists will begin testing the integrity of its space-made creations.

“This experiment leverages the microgravity environment to extrude both common and complex branching shapes,” principal investigator Ariel Ekblaw said in the November NASA news release about the mission. “Our method reduces the time to produce key parts needed for daily mission use and it may support future space construction of large structures like trusses and antennae.” Ekblaw is the founder of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Space Exploration Initiative, responsible for developing the novel process.

In an interview with NASA, her colleague, MIT engineer Martin Nisser, who is working on his doctorate, further explained the motivation behind the project: “Our ability to manufacture structures in space is really key to the success of sustainable, long-duration future space missions,” he said. 

An example of the silicone skins that contain and shape the liquid resin Rapid Liquid Printing

The method involves filling flexible “skins” in the shape of whatever part is needed, a nut or a bolt for example, with liquid resin that is then hardened under a UV light. Both the skins and resin can be sent to space in a compact manner. Researchers also hope that the process could one day be used to create large parts that would fail under Earth’s gravity, such as very long beams that would sag if built on our planet. 

But taking advantage of microgravity isn’t the only reason extrusion could prove useful. The process of flying large parts to space can be difficult and expensive, as anything that goes up must fit aboard a rocket. For instance, the James Webb Space Telescope’s massive sunshield — the size of a tennis court — had to be built to meticulously fold up into a much smaller size for launching, Popular Science explained in a piece about the experiment. 

And extrusion is just one of multiple projects designed to investigate space construction. According to The Washington Post, others involve creating both individual tiles that can self-assemble and “origami-shaped” connected tiles that can unfold themselves.

Speaking to the Post last Friday, Ekblaw expressed her excitement about the project’s potential. In addition to enabling astronauts to work on building and improving space stations more quickly, and with “less complexity” and cost, she said, “It starts to unlock more opportunities for exploration.”

Shot of an adorable baby boy at home
LaylaBird / iStock

It starts with acrobatic kicks and somersaults while still inside the womb, and progresses after birth to a never-ending stream of wiggles, wriggles, flailing arms, and jerking legs. When they’re not sleeping, babies certainly seem to always be on the move, long before they’re actually crawling or walking. And new research coming out of the University of Tokyo has determined that these seemingly purposeless movements are actually anything but.

In a recent study, published in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) this past December, shines a light on how the random exploratory behavior of newborns and babies plays a critical role in their ability to later perform deliberate sequential movements. 

The research team utilized detailed motion capture of newborns and young infants and combined that information with a musculoskeletal computer model to study how their muscles and sensations communicate throughout their entire bodies.

Prior to the study, knowledge of how newborns and infants learn movement had been limited. Project assistant professor Hoshinori Kanazawa, from the Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, explained how the new research has expanded awareness of how babies learn to control their muscles and movement, and develop coordination, which is the function of the sensorimotor system. 

“Previous research into sensorimotor development has focused on kinematic properties, muscle activities which cause movement in a joint or a part of the body,” Kanazawa stated via a press release.  “However, our study focused on muscle activity and sensory input signals for the whole body. By combining a musculoskeletal model and neuroscientific method, we found that spontaneous movements, which seem to have no explicit task or purpose, contribute to coordinated sensorimotor development.”

The research team first developed a whole-body, infant-scale musculoskeletal computer model. They next used motion capture technology to record the joint movements of 12 healthy newborns and 10 young infants, which provided data that allowed the team to estimate the babies’ muscle activity and sensory input signals. From there, computer algorithms made it possible to analyze interaction between the input signals and muscle activity.

“We were surprised that during spontaneous movement, infants’ movements “wandered” and they pursued various sensorimotor interactions. We named this phenomenon ‘sensorimotor wandering,’” said Kanazawa, later adding that the “results implied that infants develop their own sensorimotor system based on explorational behavior or curiosity, so they are not just repeating the same action but a variety of actions. In addition to this, our findings provide a conceptual linkage between early spontaneous movements and spontaneous neuronal activity.”

These findings may eventually allow doctors to diagnose developmental disorders much earlier than is currently possible. The team also hopes to study how these early movements impact later development, “such as walking and reaching, along with more complex behaviors and higher cognitive functions,” per the press release. 

For Kanazawa, the goal “is to understand the underlying mechanisms of early motor development and to find knowledge that will help to promote baby development.”

Young people choosing books and reading them in the library
AnnaStills / iStock

Have you ever wondered about whose scrawl is in the margins of your library book, or read a note on the inside cover and imagined who it was for? Sharon McKellar’s collection is for you. The librarian compiles items left on shelves and in library books across Oakland, California — from Post-It notes to bus tickets, love letters, postcards, photographs, and more — and uploads them to an online database called “Found in a Library Book.”

“I had always collected little things I’d found in library books and I knew other people did that too,” McKellar told NPR, later adding, “It lets us be a little bit nosy. In a very anonymous way, it’s like reading people’s secret diaries a little bit but without knowing who they are.” 

She began the library collection about 10 years ago, taking inspiration from Found Magazine. That publication was started by a Chicago man back in 2001, after he found a mysterious note on his windshield that was seemingly left for another person. In each issue, the magazine features found notes, pictures, and other memorabilia submitted by readers across the globe. 

While McKellar’s project is not quite so widespread, including only finds from within the Oakland Public Library system, her collection is perhaps equally intriguing and diverse. As of August, there were more than 350 items and counting.

RELATED: Independent Bookstores in US Are Thriving and Diversifying Post-Pandemic

One notable find is a fake $100 bill, printed specifically to celebrate the 100th birthday of a woman named Mary. It boasts an image of the centenarian, along with the words “In Mary We Trust.” Another intriguing keepsake? This 1990 “Book of Days” planner, complete with written entries under certain dates, and photographs of models sporting the fashion of the time. 

Other notes the librarian has archived are sweeter and simpler, like the yellow, heart-shaped Post-it written to a child named Alisha. It reads: “Sweet dreams my love bug. Have a good night and sleep well,” and is signed with love from “Mama & Daddy.” 

Speaking to NPR, McKellar explained that the project’s fun lies in the imagined life behind each artifact. In the future, she hopes the library will hold a writing contest where people can submit short stories that go along with the items.

“I like imagining where these came from,” McKellar told Reuters in September. “It just feels like a really interesting archive of our community, of the city and the people who use our libraries and the diversity within those, and just kind of a glimpse at humanity and who we all are and how we’re all connected.”

a conservator sits with "Head of a Peasant Woman," the van Gogh painting behind which a hidden self-portrait was discovered. An X-ray image of the self-portrait is displayed on a screen next to her.
Neil Hanna – Courtesy of National Galleries of Scotland

More than a century after his death, Vincent van Gogh is continuing to delight art enthusiasts with new masterpieces. Experts at the National Galleries of Scotland discovered a never-before-seen self-portrait of the late artist while X-raying another of van Gogh’s paintings, “Head of a Peasant Woman,” before putting it on display. 

When “Head of a Peasant Woman,” completed in 1885, was loaned to an exhibition in Amsterdam following van Gogh’s passing in 1890, the side with the self-portrait was covered with glue and cardboard for framing, possibly because it was considered less “finished,” according to the BBC. The piece changed owners several times before being donated to the National Galleries of Scotland in 1960. 

National Galleries of Scotland

In a video interview with the institution, professor and senior conservator Lesley Stevenson said of the finding, “When we saw the X-ray for the first time, of course we were hugely excited. Such a major discovery happens once [or] twice in a conservator’s lifetime.” 

Her colleague, senior curator Frances Fowle, added: “We have three works by van Gogh in the collection, and then suddenly, we have potentially another, which is probably the most exciting one of all.” 

Though he received financial support from his brother and sold several paintings in his lifetime, the Dutch artist wasn’t hugely successful, and didn’t achieve great fame until after his death. Mostly self-taught, van Gogh was known for reusing canvases — often painting on the reverse side in order to save money.

According to The Guardian, the hidden painting is likely part of a series of experimental self-portraits the artist painted on the backs of other used canvases between 1883 and 1885, five of which are on display at the Van Gogh Museum in the Netherlands.

Neil Hanna – Courtesy of National Galleries of Scotland

“This period when he began producing self-portraits was key in the development of his mature style, when he began experimenting with his own distinctive brush stroke,” Fowle told the outlet. “Van Gogh was a very independent thinker and he developed his radical new style so quickly.” 

As of July, when the discovery was announced, experts were researching how to safely remove the glue and cardboard without harming “Head of a Peasant Woman.” The painting remained in position while on display from July through November, during the “Taste for Impressionism” exhibition in Edinburgh, where visitors could view the X-ray image through a specially-crafted lightbox. 

The portrait will “forever be in the care of the National Galleries,” Fowle said in a statement, calling it “an incredible gift for Scotland.” 

an artist's rendition of the world's first swimming dinosaur. A slender animal with a long neck and open mouth is shown diving underwater toward fish
Yusik Choi

Dinosaurs that are not classified as birds walked the Earth during the Mesozoic Era, which occurred between 245 and 66 million years ago. And yet, believe it or not, researchers have never found evidence that any non-avian prehistoric reptiles ever swam. There was one exception: Spinosaurus — a humongous, fearsome beast that was able to adapt to water and even submerge itself. Still, it could not dive deep enough to be labeled as aquatic.

But now, all that has changed. Enter the Natovenator polydontus, a new species that scientists are referring to as the world’s first known swimming dinosaur, according to a study published in Communications Biology. Its name translates to the “many-toothed swimming hunter,” per Smithsonian Magazine. That’s because this small creature, which only stretched about a foot long, had a long jaw full of tiny teeth. It’s even a cousin of the Velociraptor, despite its miniscule size and slender appearance.

“We realized that this was something special, because it was beautifully preserved with a nice skull and an extremely long neck,” Seoul National University paleontologist and study co-author Sungjin Lee told Smithsonian. The fossil was found in Mongolia’s Gobi Desert at a site called Hermiin Tsav, where numerous other dinosaur bones have been found throughout history. After further analysis, Lee noted that Natovenator resembled a cormorant, a type of bird known for its expert diving.

Yusik Choie

While more evidence is still needed, researchers believe the anatomy of this dinosaur suggests it was likely aquatic. For example, the lengthy jaws and little teeth might have been efficient for snagging fish. Natovenator’s ribs are also swept back like that of penguins, which could have allowed it to soar through the water. No other dinosaurs have been found to have this skeletal structure, Smithsonian reports.

Although Natovenator — which belongs to a group of dinosaurs called theropods that also includes the infamous Tyrannosaurus rex — may be the world’s first swimming dinosaur, it probably won’t be the last.  

“I believe there will be more discoveries of fascinating, bizarre theropods in the future,” the study’s lead author, Yuong-Nam Lee, told Reuters. “More than 30 different lineages of tetrapods (terrestrial vertebrates) have independently invaded water ecosystems,” he added. “Why not dinosaurs?”